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Oracle Solaris 11 Advanced System Administration

Question No: 81

Your task is to configure storage for an Oracle Solaris 11 system to support multiple web servers. Each web server will be contained in a separate zone. The system has an attached disk array configured as a JBOD (Just a Bunch Of Disks). The system also has an internal solid-state drive.

The data accessed through the websites will be primarily read-only. The web servers are expected to be very busy, so configure the storage for maximum performance. Because the data is primarily static, but redundancy is required to maintain high availability in the event of a hardware failure. Data does not change often, but it is expected that the same data will be accessed many times throughout the day.

Which configuration option best meets the data storage requirements?

  1. a raid2 storage pool with a separate log device

  2. a mirrored storage pool with a separate cache device

  3. a mirrored storage pool with a separate log device

  4. a three disk striped storage pool with a separate cache device

  5. a raidz1 storage pool with a separate log and cache device

Answer: B

Explanation: Required to maintain high availability -gt; use a mirror.

The same data will be accessed many times throughout the day. Configure the storage for maximum performance. Use caching.

Question No: 82

You are the administrator of on Oracle Solaris 11 AI server.

You added a client. Then you created a custom manifest, custom criteria, and a custom profile for the client.

You made an error in the package path within the custom manifest. When will the error appear?

  1. when the manifest is checked during client preinstall

  2. when the manifest is used during client install

  3. when the manifest is updated on the AI server

  4. when the manifest is added to the AI server

Answer: D Explanation:

Note:

  • The default AI manifest must work for any client that does not match a custom manifest, for any service based on this image.

  • Question No: 83

    Identify two acceptable values for a lt;dependentgt; element in a service manifest.

    1. require_all

    2. optional_all

    3. optional_any

    4. restart_on

    5. none

    Answer: A,B

    Explanation: Service Dependency. This element identifies a group of FMRIs upon which the service is in some sense dependent.

    ATTRIBUTE: Grouping: Possible values: #39;require_all#39;, #39;require_any#39;, #39;exclude_all#39;, ‘optional_all#39;

    Note:

    * Example 1:

    lt;dependency name=#39;network#39; grouping=#39;require_all#39; restart_on=#39;none#39; type=#39;service#39;gt;

    lt;service_fmri value=#39;svc:/milestone/network:default#39; /gt;

    lt;/dependencygt;

    • In this example, let#39;s choose the svc:/system/zones:default service instance. We can use the -l option and the service name to get more information, as shown in Listing 3.

      # svcs -l svc:/system/zones:default fmri svc:/system/zones:default

      name Zones autoboot and graceful shutdown enabled true

      state online next_state none

      state_time June 14, 2012 08:30:31 PM NZST logfile /var/svc/log/system-zones:default.log restarter svc:/system/svc/restarter:default manifest /etc/svc/profile/generic.xml

      manifest /lib/svc/manifest/system/zones.xml

      manifest /lib/svc/manifest/system/zonestat.xml

      dependency require_all/none svc:/milestone/multi-user-server (online) dependency optional_all/none svc:/system/pools:default (disabled) dependency optional_all/none svc:/system/pools/dynamic:default (disabled) dependency optional_all/none svc:/system/zones-monitoring (online)

      Question No: 84

      Your server has a package repository that local clients access remotely. Which option manages HTTP access to the repository?

      1. pkg set-property

      2. pkg.depotd

      3. pkg.repotd

      4. pkgrepo

      Answer: B

      Explanation: * pkg.depotd is the depot server for the image packaging system. It provides network access to the data contained within a package repository. Clients that do not support direct access to a repository through the file system, or for which network access is the only available or preferred method of transport, typically use the package depot.

    • Example:

      Configure pkg.depotd to provide remote access. pkg.depotd provides an HTTP interface to a pkg repo. Here we are going to make the repo server listen on port 10000, and use the repo dir we created as its default.

      # svcadm disable pkg/server

      # svccfg -s pkg/server setprop pkg/inst_root = /data/myrepo

      # svccfg -s pkg/server setprop pkg/port = 10000

      # svcadm refresh pkg/server

      # svcadm enable pkg/server

      Question No: 85

      You are using the distribution constructor to build a custom text installer. You copied and modified the default test installer XML file and issued the following command to build image:

      # /usr/bin/distro_const build -v /usr/share/distro_const/new-dc_ai_x86.xml

      How will the checkpoints in the distribution constructor be used by this command?

      1. The distribution constructor will create a snapshot of the data directory at a checkpoint and report errors the log file until completed.

      2. The distribution constructor will stop at each checkpoint until you issue a distro_const restart command.

      3. The distribution constructor will not use checkpoints without the correct CLI option added to the command.

      4. The distribution constructor will stop at a checkpoint only if an error is encountered during the image build.

      Answer: C

      Explanation: Only verbose mode is selected (-v) not checkpoints options.

    • You can use the options provided in the distro_const command to stop and restart the build process at various stages in the image-generation process in order to check and debug the image that is being built. This process of stopping and restarting during the build process is called checkpointing. Checkpointing is optional.

      Note:

    • You can use the options provided in the distro_const command to stop and restart the build process at various stages in the image-generation process, in order to check and debug your selection of files, packages, and scripts for the image that is being built. This process uses the checkpointing options that are available in the distro_const command.

    • distro_const Command Options

    / distro_const build manifest

    Builds an image in one step using specified manifest file

    / distro_const build -v Verbose mode

    / distro_const build -l manifest

    Lists all valid checkpoints at which you can pause and resume building an image

    / distro_const build -p checkpoint_name manifest Pauses building an image at a specified checkpoint

    / distro_const build -r checkpoint_name manifest Resumes building an image from a specified checkpoint

    / distro_const build -h

    Displays help for the command

    • After you have set up the manifest file that you plan to use and, if desired, customized the finalizer scripts, you are ready to build an image by running the distro_const command.

      You can use the distro_const command to build an image in either of the following: In one step

      Pausing and restarting the build as needed to examine the content of the image and debug the scripts during the build process

      Question No: 86

      A contractor has been hired by you company to do some application-specific tuning. You are the administrator of the server that the contractor will be working on. You decide to enable Oracle Solaris Auditing. How will auditing help prevent misuse of the server?

      1. prevents attempts to bypass the protection mechanisms

      2. stops unauthorized activity

      3. acts as a deterrent

      4. prevents misuse

      Answer: C

      Explanation: The audit service makes the following possible:

      Monitoring security-relevant events that take place on the host Recording the events in a network-wide audit trail

      Detecting misuse or unauthorized activity

      Reviewing patterns of access and the access histories of individuals and objects Discovering attempts to bypass the protection mechanisms

      Discovering extended use of privilege that occurs when a user changes identity

      Incorrect:

      Not A: auditing does not prevent attempts to bypass the protection mechanisms, it just discovers them.

      Question No: 87

      Laura is a user and netadm is a role on a Solaris 11 system. You want to allow Laura to generate SSH keys. Which two steps should be taken?

      1. Verify that netadm includes the Network Management profile.

      2. Verify that laura has permission to access the Network Management profile.

      3. Verify that the Network Management profile includes the netadm role.

      4. Add a line for the ssh-keygen command to the file auth_attr.d/local-entries.

      5. Add a line for the ssh-keygen command to the file exec_attr.d/local-entries.

      Answer: A,D Explanation:

      D: /etc/security/auth_attr is a local source for authorization names and descriptions.

      An authorization is a right assigned to users that is checked by certain privileged programs to determine whether users can execute restricted functionality.

      Question No: 88

      Partial output of the command zonecfg into displayed as follows:

      rctl:

      name: zone.cpu-shares

      value: (priv=privileged,limit=20,action=none)

      Upon booting the zone, you receive this warning:

      WARNING: The zone.cpu-shares rctl is set but FSS is not the default scheduling class for

      this zone. FSS will be used for processes in the zone but to get the full benefit of FSS, it should be the default scheduling class.

      Which action resolves the issue?

      1. In the global zone, run the command dispadmin -d FSS.

      2. In the nonglobal zone, run the command dispadmin -d FSS.

      3. Change the zone resource control value to (priv=privileged,limit=20,action=none,default)

      4. Modify the general/scheduler property in the svc:/system/zones:default service.

      Answer: A

      Explanation: The default scheduler for Solaris uses time sharing to divide CPU time between running tasks. The fair share scheduler (FSS) uses quot;sharesquot;

      to give weighted prioritization to running processes based on the assigned CPU shares. You#39;ve assigned cpu-shares to the zone, but you aren#39;t using the fair share scheduler.

      To enable the fair share scheduler as default on the system:

      # dispadmin -d FSS

      Question No: 89

      Consider the following ZFS configuration:

      Ensurepass 2017 PDF and VCE

      You have created snapshots of the home directories which are as follows:

      Ensurepass 2017 PDF and VCE

      You have another storage pool named bpool on the same system. You use the following command to store the snapshots in this pool:

      # zfs send rpool/export/home@11.28.12 | zfs recv -F bpool@11.28.12

      What will be created in the pool bpool as a result of this operation? bpool@12.25.11

      1. bpool/export/home/ bpool/export/home/curly

      2. bpool/export/home/ bpool/export/home/curly bpool/export/home@12.25.11

      3. bpool/export/home/ bpool/export/home/curly bpool@12.25.11

      4. bpool/curly bpool/curly@12.25.11

      5. bpool/curly

      6. bpool/curly

      Answer: E

      Question No: 90

      The default route for the NCP static is changed with the following command sequence:

      Ensurepass 2017 PDF and VCE

      When does the entered route take effect?

      1. after the set command

      2. after the verify command

      3. after the commit command

      4. after the exit command

      5. after enabling the location user (command not shown)

      Answer: C Explanation:

    • The netcfg command manipulates system network configuration profiles. The netcfg command can be invoked interactively, with an individual subcommand, or by specifying a command file that contains a series of subcommands.

    • subcommand: netcfg commit

      Commits the current profile specification to persistent storage. A configuration must be correct to be committed. Therefore, this operation automatically performs a verify operation on the profile or object as well. The commit operation is attempted automatically upon exiting the current scope by using either the end or exit subcommand.

      Note:

    • from the netadm list output we see the line ncp Automatic disabled

    • Oracle Solaris 11 uses profile-based network configuration, which is comprised of two network configuration modes: manual (fixed) and automatic (reactive). Depending on which network configuration mode you choose during an installation, either the DefaultFixed network configuration profile (NCP) or the Automatic NCP is activated on the system. If the DefaultFixed NCP is active, the network is manually configured by using the dladm and ipadm commands . If the Automatic NCP or a user-defined NCP that you previously created is active, the netcfg and netadm commands (formerly nwamcfg and nwamadm) are used to create and manage network configuration.

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